Tag: Higher

The Big Bang Theory Explained

The Big Bang Theory is a term for a theory that is centuries old although is on record as being term the ‘Big Bang Theory’ by Fred Hoyle in the 1920s. There are many different parts to the Big Bang Theories and some disagreements within the scientific community as to the cause and effect of the Big Bang but it is widely agreed that:

  1. The Universe had a definite beginning.
  2. The Universe continues to expand and cool down.
  3. The Universe isn’t reliant on something or some being for it’s existence.

There is no universal agreement on what caused the Big Bang to begin or what will happen to the universe eventually.

Universe 03 Concept Isometric

Below is a quick guide to the Big Bang (Excuse me if anything is inaccurate, feel free to send any corrections to me!)

Stephen Hawking’s Into the Universe

In class, we have watched Stephen Hawking’s Universe in class to help us understand the Theory. From the video we have learned.

We have discovered more about the universe in the last 100 years than in the past 200,000 years. Everything in the Universe has been made by stars.

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The Red Shift

We know that the Big Bang Happened and the Galaxies are moving away from us because of Red Shift. This is when Galaxies appear Red due to the fact that they are moving away from us. This is explained in this BBC Guide. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/origins/redshiftrev1.shtml

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The Big Bang

The Big Bang started at a single point when the universe burst into existence. Before this it was complete darkness as light did not exist neither did space. When the universe began there was an ultra hot fog of energy.

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Within a trillionth of a second the universe stretched from the size of an atom to and orange and began cooling down. Within 100 seconds the universe was the size of our solar system. As the universe was cooling down, matter and anti matter were created. When matter and anti matter collide they destroy each other. This was happening constantly and only 1 in 1 billion matter particles survived. It is from these particles that everything was formed.

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“We are made of the smoke of the Big Bang”

The radiation from the Big Bang can still be seen and heard on earth. For example in television and radio waves.

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Gravity

Gravity is the cause of everything. The discovery of gravity is attributed to Sir Isaac Newton. Gravity is the pulling of everything together. Because some matter was denser and less effective when pulled by gravity it meant that there were imperfections in the universe. These imperfections were what created the universe.

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Hydrogen gas was the first element created. It is extremely powerful and it is what gives stars their power and energy. If hydrogen is compacted down it will heat up and cause nuclear fusion. This process is what caused helium to be created. This process is what took place in order to create more elements. This is a long process.

Black Holes

Gravity can also be dangerous and cause black holes. A black hole is created when a massive star begins to dies and becomes unstable. It shrinks and gets denser and denser until the core starts collapsing in on itself. Black Holes give off radiation and this is what galaxies rotate around.

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How were planets formed?

Our solar system is about 6 billion years old. A Star exploded and we can see evidence of this in the nebula in the solar system. Nebula is a thick fog full of different elements. Gravity pulls these elements together. The pressure of the hydrogen gas led to an explosion and a formation of a new star (our sun). This blast gave off a radioactive dust that pushed any excess dust. From these elements and dust planets began to form.

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Did this all happen by accident?

All questions about the Big Bang ultimately lead to questions on whether this was a ‘perfect accident’. Christian Scientists who believe that the Universe was created by God. They use the examples of

  •  The earth being the exact positions away from the Sun that it is not too hot or too cold.
  • All the elements required for life are present on the earth.
  • The imbalance or imperfection that was required for life to begin was a 1 in a billion chance.

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Stephen Hawking refuted this explaining that for the size of the universe and the 1 in a billion chance it is inevitable that at least of the billions of planets would have life on them.

Further Reading

http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/space/universe/questions_and_ideas/big_bang

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The Life of Jesus – Revision Resource

The Life of Jesus – Revision Resource

This is a great website that talks you through all the things you need to know about Jesus.

In the National 5 and Higher Exam – you will need to know Who Jesus was, Beliefs about him, his teachings, what impact he had as well as basic information about his life.

You may be asked to reflect on who he was in relation to God. Also you should be able to describe a few parables in detail.

http://request.org.uk/jesus/introduction-to-jesus/

This Website  – REQuest is really easy to use and helpful at guiding you through Jesus’ life.

Why not use it to answer some of these questions.

  1. Create a timeline of key events in Jesus’ life.
  2. What is the significance of the Incarnation (Birth of Jesus) to Christians (4)
  3. What are Christian Beliefs about Jesus? (4)
  4. Explain what is meant by the Holy Trinity. (4)
  5. Jesus is often referred to as the Messiah – What does this mean? (4)
  6. Jesus taught people how to live by using parables.
    1. Summarise 2 parables and their meanings.
    2. Explain how Jesus used Parables to teach people how to live their lives (4)
  7. Summarise the Easter Story. (4)
  8. How do Christians celebrate this? (4)

The website also has lots of other information for revision. I will pinpoint some other parts.

Understanding Humanism Resources

Understanding Humanism Resources

 

This is a great website created by the Humanist Society of Scotland to understand Humanist views on things.

https://www.humanism.scot/what-we-do/education/education-resources/

It includes

What is Humanism?

PDF

Bioethics

PDF

The Origin of Religion

PDF

Humanist Responses to Various Moral Issues –

Great for assignments or assessments where you need a non religious viewpoint!

https://www.humanism.scot/what-we-do/previous-campaigns/the-h-factor/

Responses to Origins of the Universe and Life

PDF

This is a good website to get viewpoints from to add into any pieces of work in RME. For teachers there are examples of lesson plans etc!

 

What do I need to do in my RMPS Assignment?

What do I need to do in my RMPS Assignment?

RMPS Assignment.pngThe write-ups for RMPS N5 and Higher Assignments are coming up. So below is a guide to help you complete your assignment and achieve a great result.

Use the guides, the booklet and this rmps-assignment-planner to help you

National 5

The Task

 

The purpose of this assignment is to demonstrate your ability to apply your skills and knowledge and understanding to research a religious, moral or philosophical issue of your choice. This may be related to areas you have studied in class if you wish, but you are free to research any relevant topic or issue. For help with topics see here. 

The assignment is worth 20 marks. The marks contribute 25% of the overall marks for the Course assessment. The Course will be graded A–D. This means that it can have a massive impact on your final grade.

The assessment for the assignment will be in the form of a report of your research and findings. You must complete this report within one hour.

The Resource Sheet

You will have the RMPS Resource Sheet which you can refer to as you produce a report of your findings. This will help you produce your report of your assignment. You must use only one side of this single sheet and be no more than 200 words.

The Resource Sheet will not be marked; you will only be awarded marks for what you include in your report. You must not use it to pre-write your report, however it is fine to copy quotations in full. No marks will be awarded for directly copying extended pieces of text/narrative from the Resource Sheet.

What are we marked on?

A. Identify an appropriate religious, moral or philosophical issue

How you can do this

Identify a religious, moral or philosophical issue. Your issue can be religious or moral or philosophical or any combination of these. Your issue should allow you to:

¨     find relevant factual information and relevant viewpoints

¨     comment on the significance or impact of the issue

¨     come to a conclusion which you can support with reasons

B. Comment on the significance or impact of the issue

How you can do this

Your comment should focus on the significance or impact of the religious, moral or philosophical issue you have been studying.

This means you need to show you understand the issue or topic you have chosen. You are showing the marker you know that the issue is important. Perhaps this would be referring to current debate, recent news articles, how important the issue is. Obviously this would depend completely on your chosen topic as to what would be appropriate to include.

C. Use information from different sources

How you can do this

You will need to:

¨     collect information which will help you come to a conclusion on the issue

¨     find out about facts and viewpoints

¨     take a note of where you found this information

Collecting information

You should collect evidence relevant to the issue, from a range of sources. This may include, for example:

¨     websites/blogs

¨     newspapers/magazines (print or electronic)

¨     books

¨     religious texts

¨     visits or fieldtrips

¨     television/video

¨     radio/podcasts

¨     textbooks

¨     interviews/questionnaires

¨     artefacts

¨     iconography

Taking a note of the sources you have used

When presenting evidence from sources, you should say where the information comes from.

It is useful to reference the sources you have used. You can quote directly or put it in your own words. For example:

1 Corinthians 13 states that….

Or

In The Blind Watchmaker Dawkins argues that….

Or

The Buddhist Wheel of Life shows….

Or

The BBC Religion and Ethics website states that…. (full URL for websites are not required)

It is important to think about the reliability and appropriateness of the sources you use.

See here for some research ideas

D. Use knowledge and understanding to explain and analyse aspects of the issue

How you can do this

Use accurate knowledge to explain key aspects of the issue. Explaining and analysing the issue could require you to make links between factors or different aspects of the issue, and show that you have understood how these different factors affect each other, for example:

¨     People who believe in a literal interpretation of religious creation stories will reject scientific accounts of the origin of the universe. This may lead them to mistrust science in general, which in turn may affect…

¨     Religious people may agree with non-religious people that the issue of mankind’s responsibility for the environment is a moral issue, because they believe that…

E. Present a conclusion about the issue

F. Support the conclusion with reasons

How you can do this

Present a conclusion which is supported with valid reasons.

Your conclusion may be presented at any point in your writing, for example, as you present your evidence or at the end.

Concluding that you are unsure is fine, providing you can support your view with clear reasons.

Higher

This assignment is worth 30 marks out of a total of 90 marks for the Course. The marks contribute approximately 33% of the overall marks for the Course assessment. The Course will be graded A–D. This therefore can have a massive impact on your final grade! 

As with the N5 Assignment you need to choose an appropriate issue and topic. Complete research on it and analyse and evaluate the debate surrounding the topic. There are 3 things that you will be marked on.

 

 

A  Knowledge and Understanding (12 marks)

Researching the issue

You should use a range of sources of information, to which you should refer to in your assignment. (See above for examples of the different types of research you could complete)

Demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the issue

You should use your knowledge and understanding to support your response to the issue.

This is where you show off what you have learned about the topic.

B   Analysis (10 marks)

Analysing the issue

Analysis involved identifying parts, the relationship between them, and their relationships with the whole. It can also involve drawing out and relating implications.

Analyse

Synthesising information in a structured manner

You should draw together a range of information in response to the issue. Bring together your arguments and support draw links between your different pieces of information.

Explaining the significance or impact of the issue

You should explain the significance or impact of the issue. Explain why it is such an important topic or issue.

C   Evaluation (8 marks)

Evaluate

Evaluating different viewpoints on the issue

You should evaluate different viewpoints on the issue. Evaluation involves making reasoned judgements.

Presenting a detailed explanation of supporting information and potential challenges/counter-arguments

You should comment on arguments, challenges and/or counter-arguments in terms of, for example: validity, quality, strengths, weaknesses, consistency, etc.

Presenting a reasoned and well-structured conclusion on the issue

You should draw and present a reasoned conclusion on the issue. Your conclusion should include an overall judgement about the issue.

Use the support on this website and come on a Tuesday after school to get extra help!

GOOD LUCK!

 

Is it Reasonable to Believe that God Created the Universe? Higher Model Answer

Is it Reasonable to Believe that God Created the Universe? Higher Model Answer

Is it reasonable to believe that God Created the Universe? (20 Marks)

Below is a model answer of the above question. I have added in some links to help with additional reading.

This is a question that has been widely debated for years and as scientific advances happen, fresh debates also happen. In order for something to be reasonable, it must have evidence to back up the claim. When looking at the Existence of God, many would look to evidence to support their argument. However Religious people, such as Christians would also say that belief in something also requires Faith. There are different types of truth, which depend on faith. (Read more about this here. )

Christians fundamental belief is that God must exist because the Universe exists and he is the Creator of everything. For them, God reveals himself in different ways. Sometimes this may be directly communicating with people – for example giving the Ten Commandments to Moses. Those who believe Jesus was an incarnation of God, also believe that this was God revealing himself to humanity. There are many different types of revalation that God has used to show himself  to humanity. Christians believe that this therefore is proof that God exists and created the Universe because there is evidence of him in the Bible, History and in the world around us.

Critics of this argument would say that because the word exists and there are instances of God revealing himself do not actually prove God exists or that he created the Universe. There are questions raised about the physical appearance of God so much in the times of the Old Testament but not anymore. Scientists would argue that the Bible cannot be used as a source of Scientific knowledge as it is full of inaccuracies and contradictions. It was written by humans about their understandings of God. Scientists would argue that therefore it is not a divine revelation, instead interpretations of a divine revelation. What one person experiences is not valid scientific evidence because it is a personal experience that cannot be verified. This is where the argument of the difference between faith and reason comes in. God is so powerful and mysterious that he is beyond human comprehension, therefore depending on your own faith and reason it could be reasonable to believe that God created the universe.

The Christian creation story of Genesis 1 can be used to support beliefs in God. This is the story that God created the world in 6 days and rested on the 7th. This can be interpreted in different ways. Creationist or Literal Christians believe that this is true in every way. They believe that the Bible is God’s word and so we must accept everything that is in it as the truth. Therefore for literal there is no debate when asked if God exists. God is Omnipotent and can do anything. Some Christians would say that this literal view is not compatible with some scientific evidence and therefore would see the creation story as being symbolic. They still believe that God created the world but not in the 7 24 hour time periods that are described in the Bible. By interpreting the source in this way Liberal Christians can look at scientific evidence and interpret the source with other developments that humans have found to be true. Therefore many would argue that the Genesis story can either prove or at least support the belief in a God as a creator.

The Cosmological Argument is an argument first put forward by Thomas Aquinas. The argument suggests that everything that exists must exist because it was caused by something else. Everything in the universe must have a cause. There must have been a first cause to cause everything. This cause must have been an uncaused cause to start everything off. The only thing that is eternal and powerful enough is God. Therefore God must be the first cause and God must exist. This gives a philosophical reason for the existence of God and gives reason to the argument that God exists. Christians use this argument to support their belief that God created the universe.

There are flaws with the Cosmological argument as an explanation for how the Universe began. For example, the premise of the argument that everything must have a cause does not include God. For many there is the argument that if God does not need a cause why does the universe? This argument also only links to the conclusion that there must be a uncaused cause, this doesn’t necessarily mean it is God. Scientists would use the Big Bang Theory to explain how the Universe began. The Big Bang was the start of the Universe: Matter, Space and Time. There was nothing before it. Quantum Physicists suggest that matter can appear and disappear spontaneously and does not require a cause. There are many different pieces of evidence that Scientists use to back up the theory of the Big Bang. For example theory proposed by Hubble and Einstein explain that there must be a limitation to the energy in the Universe this can be seen in the Red Shift, which shows the Universe is expanding. Although there is a lot of scientific evidence that supports the Big Bang there is no conclusive explanation for why it happened. For many Christians and other religious groups this cause has to be God, as to them it is the only logical explanation. Some Creationist Christians may argue against the Big Bang Theory and instead would only accept the word of the Bible, and the 7 day creation story.

The Teleological Argument is another argument used to support the argument about the existence of God. First proposed by William Paley, the argument suggests that the world is so perfect that it must have been designed. For example the Earth is the right distance away from the sun for life to survive. There are also examples within the complexities of nature, for many the only logical answer to how this could be would be the existence of a God. However there are critics of this argument such as Immanuel Kant, he argues that the structure and order on Earth is imagined. We want to see a perfect world so that is what we see. Hume also critiques this argument saying that the order of the world does not prove a god created it. It could be a group of gods or perhaps something other than God. An Argument is merely a theory and is not proof that something exists. This theory of a perfect world also does not fit in with the idea of evolution, which has been scientifically been proven by scientists such as Darwin. Many would however argue that Evolution was all part of God’s overall plan. As with most arguments about God, it is up to personal interpretation and faith. There is enough evidence to support either side of the argument and it could be proven either way. It is up to an individuals faith in God whether or not he exists and created the Universe.

To conclude, many would argue that it is indeed reasonable to believe that God created the Universe as belief in God requires an element of Faith along with reason. The idea of God can work with scientific theories such as that of The Big Bang Theory. For others the revelation of God through his creation and holy word is enough evidence. It does require an element of faith and that is down to personal interpretation.

 

The Noble Eightfold Path

The Noble Eightfold Path

The Noble Eightfold Path consists of eight ways of thinking, speaking and behaving that the Buddha said people should follow if they want to reach Nirvana, the end of suffering.

Some would argue that it may be too difficult to follow. See below at each of the steps and challenges it may present.

2cfeb6f5e9b4069b48ee1005fc2ea22bRIGHT UNDERSTANDING

Right Understanding understands the teachings on karma and rebirth, the Three Universal Truths, the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. However, this is not just an intellectual understanding. Rather it is where you actually feel those things to be true in your heart and they influence the way you see and do things at a day-to-day level. This could prove difficult for some.

RIGHT INTENTION

Before we do anything we usually think about it; first we develop the INTENTION to do something then we do it. Sometimes our intention is a selfish one, where we decide to do things just for the sake of our own happiness. Sometimes we even do things with the negative intention of harming others.

Right Intention means doing things for the right reasons. Instead of thinking about doing things for him or herself, a Buddhist thinks about doing things for others. Instead of thinking about how they can harm others, Buddhists think about how they can help others. Basically, Right Intention is stopping doing things for bad reasons and instead doing them for good ones.

RIGHT SPEECH

Right Speech means (1) not lying, (2) not swearing, (3) not gossiping and (4) not saying things that cause other people to fall out. A Buddhist always tries to do the opposite of these things: he or she tries to tell the truth, to speak pleasantly and about meaningful subjects. Finally, he tries to speak in ways that cause harmony between people. This may be hard to follow through for many at all times.

RIGHT ACTION

Right Action means (1) not killing or injuring any living being, (2) not stealing, and (3) not committing sexual misconduct (simply put, this means not being unfaithful to your partner).

 

RIGHT LIVELIHOOD

A Buddhist must never make their living in a way that is harmful to others. This means that he or she can never work selling (1) weapons, (2) meat, (3) slaves,
(4) harmful drugs or (5) poisons. A Buddhist could be a chemist because the drugs he sold would not harm people. He could not own a pub though!

Some Buddhist’s may have difficulty working in the cigarette or alcohol industry or in the manufacturing of weapons. Also jobs that exploit animals or damage the environment should be avoided.

RIGHT EFFORT

Right Effort means making an effort to abandon negative ways of thinking such as proud, angry, or jealous thoughts and instead making an effort to develop positive ways of thinking such as humble, generous or compassionate thoughts.

RIGHT MINDFULNESS

To be mindful of something means to remember it. We all have mindfulness but it is usually mindfulness of something meaningless like the pop song we can’t stop singing or the girl or boy we can’t stop thinking about. Buddhists learn to be mindful of a calm and peaceful state of mind so that when something that causes a strong sense of ‘self’ suddenly appears to the mind, be it a thought, a feeling, a sensation, or an object, they remember or are ‘mindful’ of that calm and peaceful state of mind.

RIGHT CONCENTRATION

Right Concentration is the ability to keep the mind totally concentrated on a calm, peaceful state without becoming distracted. It is very similar to Right Mindfulness, indeed the two work together very closely. While Right Concentration remains focussed on the calm and peaceful state, Right Mindfulness notices when the mind starts to get distracted and pulls it back to the object of concentration. By keeping the mind concentrated through Right Concentration, and preventing distraction from arising by practising Right Mindfulness, a Buddhist gradually dissolves their mind into deeper and deeper states of meditation until eventually they reach Nirvana. Here, because they have gone beyond the sense of ‘self’, they achieve the End of Suffering, (the Third Noble Truth).

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What are the benefits and difficulties when following the Eightfold Path?

The benefits of following the Eightfold Path are:

  • Helps overcome suffering.
  • Gives guidelines on how to live free from craving
  • Helps to overcome attachment and gain good Karma
  • Helps to free ones self from samsara
  • It brings calm and peace to a person and helps gain wisdom
  • Creates a freer and more tolerant society

Some difficulties of trying to follow the Eightfold path are

  • It is hard to keep to the path. Responsibilities of work and family take up time
  • Pressure of work and the time work takes, can keep people from following the path.
  • Other attachments and cravings which we are exposed to in the modern world hinder our progress.
  • Sometimes the path might not seem realistic in the busy modern life.
  • Some Buddhists believe that you have to withdraw to a monastry to progress along the path quicker.
How do Non- Religious people make decisions?

How do Non- Religious people make decisions?

There is no one singular answer to this question. People make decisions in a variety of different ways, people may not even know the process that they go through to make decisions. Some religious people may look to their own holy books or teachings for guidance. But what about non religious people? Where do they go for guidance?

Humanism

This is a non religious group of people, who do not believe in any god, life after death or religion. They believe life is to be lived and there is no further purpose. This website here explains a little more about their beliefs and how they come to making decisions. http://understandinghumanism.org.uk/uhtheme/ethics/?age=14

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Utilitarianism

Utilitarian is a way of thinking based on doing the best to make the most people happy. There are different types of Utilitarians and this video explains how Utilitarians make decisions.

 

If in an exam you are asked about how non- religious people make decisions. These are two examples you can use.

Revision Wall

Revision Wall

I am not even a little bit ashamed to admit how excited I am about my Revision Wall. Complete with Fairy Lights.

On it I have some revision posters, model answers and revision guides. I also in a drawer underneath I have marking schemes of past paper questions to help pupils with creating revision mind maps and notes.

Here’s the posters below, feel free to use.

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